Today marks the 30th anniversary of Pi Day, or 3.14 if you prefer. This year it's celebrated by Google with a Google Doodle designed by the inventor of the cronut, pastry chef Dominique Ansel. Approximate values used most commonly in calculations are 3.14 and 3.1415, or the fraction 22/7.
Pi is the ratio between a circle's circumference and its diameter.
Pi is one of the most commonly known mathematical constants.
Pi Day is celebrated every year March 14 as the first three digits of pi are three, one and four, representing the date. With people all over celebrating today, NASA too has invited the public to celebrate Pi Day (March 14) by organising a "Pi in the Sky" challenge.
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The letters making up "Google" are abstractly spelled out on the home page with the ingredients and the pie itself, and they also write out the equation circumference divided by diameter equals pi.
It is believed that physicist Larry Shaw was the first to celebrate the day at the Exploratorium in San Francisco with his peers and staff nearly 30 years ago. It's an important part of the foundation of mathematics, most importantly geometry, where pi is key to equations calculating the area of a circle, A = π r, and the volume of a cylinder, V = π rh. Therefore, it is an irrational number which is less than infinity. The challenge is in its fifth year, and features mathematical problems that can be solved using Pi. Mathematicians adopted the symbol π for the expression in the 18th century: Welsh mathematics teacher William Jones is often credited with the first use of the symbol in 1706.
Pi is also a source of inspiration for competitions, where participants have to recite as many decimals of the number as possible.