She had been diagnosed with brain cancer in May previous year, suffered a haemorrhage on Friday, and had been in a coma until her death yesterday.
The family spokesman said: "It is with great sadness, and an enormous sense of loss, that we announce the death of Tessa Jowell".
Jowell died peacefully at the family home near Shipston-on-Stour in Warwickshire just after 10pm on Saturday with her husband David and their children Jessie and Matthew by her side. I've never seen love like I have since becoming part of their family. "They have been touched and moved by the response, in both Houses of Parliament; from members of the public; and other cancer patients and their families around the world".
I had the pleasure to work with her on the London 2012 Olympics - she was not just a dedicated & passionate campaigner, but a wonderful human being.
Dani King, Joanna Rowsell, Laura Trott (Cycling, Team Pursuit) - Rowsell and Trott are still in the picture and won gold at the European Championships. It is no exaggeration to say that the sporting summer of 2012 would not have happened without her.
The former social worker lost to her Conservative rival, and was defeated again in the following year's general election.
He told the BBC that she was a "committed public servant" who was "always true and loyal and decent and wise". "Throughout her illness she behaved with quite remarkable courage". She was the first senior politician fully to understand the importance of public health and to shift health policy towards prevention of illness and not only cure.
As a government minister and member of the House of Commons with the Labour Party, Ms. Jowell championed programs such as Sure Start, an initiative to improve child care.
She also remained on the 2012 Olympics Organising Committee under chairman Sebastian Coe.
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In 2004, she officially launched the bid and, when the Olympic and Paralympic Games were awarded to London, she was appointed Olympics Minister and held full ministerial responsibility for the bid from 2006.
"Her strength in raising awareness of her illness and fighting for better treatment for others inspired us all".
She told peers: "In the end, what gives a life meaning is not only how it is lived, but how it draws to a close.
She will be remembered for many things including of course successfully bringing us the London Olympics".
"No politician deserves greater credit for the Games".
Former Prime Minister Tony Blair asked Jowell to coordinate the government's support for survivors and the bereaved.
Cllr Peter John tweeted: "Following the sad death of Dame Tessa Jowell, who served as constituency MP for Dulwich & West Norwood between 1992 and 2015, Lambeth and Southwark Councils are opening books of condolence at their respective Town Halls".
During her time in office, she was in charge of London's successful bid to host the 2012 Olympics and more recently had campaigned for more cancer treatments to be made available through the NHS.