The SNP said it would be "outrageous" for the British government to impose the bill on Scotland.
What are the consequences of the Scottish Parliament refusing its consent?
Mrs May said her government was "disappointed that the Scottish Parliament has not granted its consent" and insisted it was still "working hard to find a way through".
"The SNP has to wait and see what happens with Brexit", said Nicola McEwen, politics professor at the Centre on Constitutional Change at Edinburgh University. "I still think we can resolve this issue and that remains my objective", he said.
Queen meets Turkish president at Buckingham Palace
Gundogan insisted he "didn't want to make a political statement with this photo and even less so campaign for his election". Erdogan is a keen soccer fan and as a young man played the game at a semi-professional level.
The Welsh government has agreed the United Kingdom government has the final say if there are disputes in the five years from Brexit day over these policies, after ministers in London amended the European Union bill in response to Welsh and Scottish concerns.
Bruce Crawford, the head of the Parliament's Finance and Constitution Committee, said the vote was a "historic and significant" moment for Scotland and that he hoped the government in London would "respect the views" of the assembly.
Ian Blackford, the SNP's leader at Westminster, is expected to confront Mrs May at Prime Minister's Questions this afternoon over claims she will "ride roughshod" over the devolution settlement.
It is important people have a say in decisions affecting them, and the Rural Parliament is an important part of that process, allowing rural communities from across Scotland to discuss and agree priority areas for development and local democracy.
Talks between the Scottish Government and Cabinet Office ministers Damian Green and David Lidington have been going on for months to reach a resolution on devolved powers.
Meanwhile, talks between the United Kingdom and Scottish governments are set to continue, with Scotland's other political parties also given the chance to contribute possible solutions.
But Scottish Labour's Brexit spokesman Neil Findlay said: "As the party that delivered devolution, Labour will always seek to defend and strengthen it".